Ecosystems are bound together by the complex interactions of thousands of species, but changing climate, extinctions and the introduction of exotic species are changing how species interact. Many New Zealand plants, for example, rely on birds to disperse pollen and seeds. How has the loss of certain New Zealand birds influenced our plant communities and how might they continue to change in the future? Can introduced birds be surrogates for extinct native birds? Research at CBRE in North America, tropical Borneo and Zealandia is improving our understanding of the drivers of changes in species interactions which will lead to better conservation management.