Prof Daniel K Brown
Teaching in 2020
- as Course Coordinator and Lecturer
MArch Yale University, BA(Hons) Williams College, MA
Registered Architect 021852 (USA/NY)
Master's thesis stream supervisor
ARCI 591/592 - Architecture Research Thesis
Narrative Architectural Design
View Daniel's Inaugural Professorial Lecture: The Voice of Architecture
View Daniel's Research-Led Teaching video: Changing the Face of Wellington
View Daniel's website
Daniel Brown holds the interdisciplinary chair Professor of Design Studio in the Wellington School of Architecture. During his 14-year professional architecture career, Daniel was Vice-President from 1990-96 of one of the most prominent architecture design firms in New York, Emilio Ambasz and Associates (EAA). Emilio Ambasz was Curator of Design at the Museum of Modern Art and two-term President of the Architectural League. EAA explicitly challenged the boundaries of architecture, producing highly innovative and provocative new solutions for design that have won innumerable awards. The firm is best known for the award-winning Casa de Retiro Espiritual in Cordoba, Spain, which has been extensively published and exhibited twice at the Museum of Modern Art in New York. The architecture projects designed during Daniel’s seven-year tenure at EAA have been published in 12 books (including eight monographs) and over 200 international journal articles, and they have won seven international awards. Prior to EAA, Daniel worked for Brown Daltas and Partners in Rome, Harry Seidler and Associates in Sydney, and Richard Meier and Partners in New York.
During his 22-year academic career, Daniel has won twelve teaching awards including the New Zealand National Award for Sustained Excellence in Tertiary Teaching. He has been awarded 7 fully funded international research fellowships, including the American Fulbright Fellowship, 3 national research fellowships, and 16 professional awards for collaborative designs. Daniel was the Associate Dean (Academic Development) for the Faculty of Architecture and Design from 2015-2018. Previous senior academic leadership roles have included three years as Deputy Head School of Design (2005-07), eight years as Programme Director Interior Design/Architecture (2004-07, 2009-12), three years on the Faculty Management Team (2015-present), six years on the School of Architecture Senior Management Advisory Team (2007-12) and seven years on the School of Design Senior Executive Committee (2000-06). Daniel holds dual USA and New Zealand citizenships and is a registered architect in New York.
Daniel teaches in the Architecture studio design programme, including Year 5, Year 4 and Year 3. Daniel has supervised 79 Master’s Thesis students and 3 PhD students, and he has examined 94 Master’s Thesis students and 2 PhD students.
Daniel has also taught numerous cross-disciplinary (Architecture, Interior Architecture, Landscape Architecture, and Industrial Design) studio design elective courses, including Narrative Design, Project Advancement and Portfolio Design, and International Field Study. Previously, Daniel was the Programme Director for Interior Design/Architecture for two 3-year terms (2004–2007; 2009–2012), during which he taught Year 5, Year 4 and Year 3 Interior Architecture studio design courses.
Recent books, edited volumes, and book chapters
Brown, D., Manfredini, M., McPhearson, P., Pretty, A., Rieger, U., & Southcombe, M. (Eds.) (2017). Crossing Boundaries: Reflections on Applied Collaborative Architectural Research. Siracusa, Italy: LetteraVentidue Edizioni S.r.l.
Brown, D.K., Manfredini, M., McPherson, P., Pretty, A., Rieger, U., Southcombe, M., & Fournier, C. (Eds.) (2017). Critical Thresholds. Traversing Architectural Pedagogy, Research and Practice. The Journal of Public Space (Vol. 2), Brisbane, Australia: Queensland University of Technology.
Brown, D. K., Manfredini, M., McPherson, P., Pretty, A., Rieger, U., Southcombe, M., . . . Zilka, L. (2015). Applied Collaborations: 8th Annual Conference and Exhibition of the Association of Architecture Schools of Australasia. Hamilton, New Zealand: 8th International Conference and Exhibition of the Association of Architecture Schools of Australasia.
Brown, D. K., & Southcombe, M. (2017). Interdisciplinary and collaborative design at the core of inquiry and scholarly research. In D. K. Brown, M. Manfredini, P. McPhearson, A. Pretty, Rieger U, & M. Southcombe (Eds.), Crossing Boundaries: Reflections on Applied Collaborative Architectural Research. Siracusa, Italy: LetteraVentidue Edizioni S.r.l.
Prendergast, S., & Brown, D. K. (2017). Architecture as a pathway to reconciliation in post-earthquake Christchurch. In D. K. Brown, M. Southcombe, M. Manfredini, A. Pretty, U. Rieger, & P. McPhearson (Eds.), Crossing Boundaries: Reflections on Applied Collaborative Architectural Research (pp. 177-188). Syracusa, Italy: LetteraVentidue Edizioni S.r.l [Also published in: The Journal of Public Space, 2(3), Special Issue, 143-156, DOI: 10.5204/jps.v2i3.123].
Prendergast, S., & Brown, D. K. (2015). Ko wai te ingoa o tenei whare. In D. K. Brown, M. Southcombe, A. Pretty, McPherson, U. Rieger, & M. Manfredini (Eds.), Applied Collaborations (pp. 260-272). Hamilton, New Zealand: 8th International Conference and Exhibition of the Association of Architecture Schools of Australasia.
Recent conference papers
Beattie, H., & Brown, D. K. (2015). Topology of a phantom city. In D. K. Brown, M. Southcombe, A. Pretty, P. McPheaerson, U. Rieger, & M. Manfredini (Eds.), Applied Collaborations (pp. 205-215). Hamilton, New Zealand: 8th International Conference and Exhibition of the Association of Architecture Schools of Australasia.
Beattie, H., Brown, D. K., & Gjerde, M. (2017). Generating Consensus: A Framework for Fictional Inquiry in Participatory City Gaming. In M. Alcaniz, S. Gobel, M. Ma, M. Fradinho Oliveira, J. Baalsrud Hauge, & T. Marsh (Eds.), Serious Games (pp. 126-137). Springer International Publishing.
Brown, D. K., & Duncan, W. (2016, July 4). Heterotopia: After the Fall. In 6th Annual International Conference on Architecture (pp. 31-32). Athens, Greece.
Brown, D. K., & Elsen, S. (2017, May 10). The role of architecture in urban design: navigating India’s sacred rivers. In 3rd Smart Cities India 2017 Expo. Delhi, India.
Rastandeh, A., Brown, D. K. & Pedersen Zari, M. (2017). Biodiversity conservation in urban environments: a review on the importance of spatial patterning of landscapes. Eco-city World Summit, 12-14 July, Melbourne, Australia.
Ward, B., & Brown, D. (2013). Urban Expansion through Industrial Sites: The Changing State of Port Cities. In R. Davies, & D. Menzies (Eds.), IFLA50: Shared Wisdom in an Age of Change. Proceedings for the 50th IFLA World Congress (pp. 371-377). Cambridge, England: International Federation of Landscape Architects.
Recent journal articles
Rastandeh, A., Pedersen Zari, M. & Brown, D. K. (2018). Land cover change and management implications for the conservation of a seabird in an urban coastal zone under climate change. Ecological Management & Restoration, 19(2), 147-155.
Rastandeh, A., Brown, D.K. & Pedersen Zari, M. (2018). Site selection of urban wildlife sanctuaries for safeguarding indigenous biodiversity against increased predator pressures. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, 32: 21-31.
Rastandeh, A., Pedersen Zari, M., Brown, D. K., & Vale, R. (2018). Utilising exotic flora in support of urban indigenous biodiversity: lessons for landscape architecture. Landscape Research, 43(5), 708-720.
Rastandeh, A., Pedersen Zari, M. & Brown, D. K. (2018). Components of landscape pattern and urban biodiversity in an era of climate change: a global survey of expert knowledge. Urban Ecosystems. In Press.
Rastandeh, A., Pedersen Zari, M., Brown, D. K. & Vale, R. (in final review). Analysis of urban landform in relation to land cover and its implications for urban biodiversity against rising temperatures. Urban Policy & Research.
Recent design animation installations
Brown, D. K. (2020). Tahu-nui-a-rangi and Te Taha-o-te-rangi. Light Boxes Wellington, Vivian Street, Wellington, New Zealand.
Brown, D. K. (2019). Te Toi-o-nga-rangi. HighLight Carnival of Lights, Lower Hutt Event Centre, Lower Hutt, New Zealand. 25-28 Oct.
Brown, D. K. (2019). Pūrerehua. LUMA Southern Light Project, Queenstown Botanical Gardens, Queenstown, New Zealand. 31 May - 3 Jun.
Brown, D. K. (2019). Te Toi-o-nga-rangi. Christchurch Art Gallery, Opening Night Wheriko - Brilliant! I After Dark Event. Christchurch, New Zealand. 24 May.
Brown, D. K. (2018). Aurora. LUMA Southern Light Project, Queenstown Botanical Gardens, Queenstown, New Zealand. 1-4 Jun.
Brown, D. K. (2018). Edge of the Universe. LUX Light Festival, Wellington Wharf, Wellington, New Zealand. 18-27 May.
Brown, D. K. (2017). Edge of the Universe. LUMA Southern Light Project, Queenstown Botanical Gardens, Queenstown, New Zealand. 2-5 Jun.
Brown, D. K. (2016). Pulse-LUMA. LUMA Southern Light Project, Queenstown Botanical Gardens, Queenstown, New Zealand. 3-5 Jun.
Venice Architecture Biennale
A 5-year retrospective of my research was exhibited in the 2010 Venice Architecture Biennale, in the host Italy Pavillion, as part of the exhibition "Reflections of the Future." The Italy Pavilion selected architectural research specifically responding to its theme: "work that unveils a vision of architecture as civil art capable of generating solutions for a society in the midst of deep-seated change."
My ongoing research investigates how neglected urban sites can be strategically revitalized by re- establishing critical links to lost cultural and historical imperatives. It transforms dilapidated urban sites into rejuvenated public spaces by reconnecting them to their historic and cultural contexts. The resulting narratives are designed to challenge our perception of our built environment as well as its inhabitants. The impact of my annual collaborative research in Rome since 2005 has played a significant role in convincing the regional council that strategic application of cultural and historical imperatives is a viable cost-effective approach to culturally revitalizing derelict or neglected public spaces. As a result of this research relating to a neglected half-kilometre stretch of the Tiber River between the Sisto and Mazzini bridges, Rome has begun transforming this site of our research into a permanent public arts space.
The significance, originality, and international esteem of the outputs of my research have been evidenced by their selection to premier on opening or closing nights of highly competitive major international events, such as the 2006 European Festival of Music (transforming the decaying walls of the Tiber River in the centre of historic Rome), the 2007 Eternal Tiber River Festival (rejuvenating the silted waters of the Tiber River), the 2008 New York River to River Festival (transforming Castle Clinton in Battery Park, overlooking the Statue of Liberty), and the 2009 Birth of Rome Celebrations (transforming Michelangelo’s Palazzo dei Conservatori on Rome’s Capitoline Hill, overlooking the ancient Roman forum). The esteem of these works has been further evidenced by attracting large public audiences (over 1,000 opening night visitors in 2009 on Rome’s Capitoline Hill, and up to 170,000 at the 2010 Venice Architecture Biennale), by substantial external funding awarded, and by significant positive reviews in international publications. It is a particular honour that my research rejuvenating neglected urban sites was selected for exhibition in the Italy Pavilion of the 2010 Venice Architecture Biennale curated by Luca Molinari, one of Italy's leading curators. The Italy Pavilion selected architectural research explicitly responding to its theme: "work that unveils a vision of architecture as civil art capable of generating solutions for a society in the midst of deep-seated change."
- 2013–2014 NZ India Research Institute Fellowship (India, fully externally funded)
- 2012–present Fellow New Zealand India Research Institute (Invited inaugural fellow)
- 2011 Asian Cultural Council Fellowship (Nepal, fully funded)
- 2010 CAMAC for Art, Science, Technology Fellowship (France, part funded)
- 2010 La Muse Fellowship (France, fully funded)
- 2009 Liguria Study Center Arts & Humanities Fellowship (Italy, fully funded)
- 2008–present Ako Aotearoa Tertiary Teaching Excellence Fellowship
- 2005–present Asian Studies Institute Fellowship (NZ)
- 1999–2000 U.S. Congressional Fulbright Fellowship (Thailand, fully funded)
- 1998 Asian Cultural Council Fellowship (Nepal, fully funded)
- 1997 American Institute of Indian Studies Fellowship (India, fully funded)
My Research-Led Undergraduate Teaching explores how regional buildings - inside and outside - can achieve landmark status through design. Click here to see an article on my Research-Led Teaching published in B-Completepdf1MB . Click here to see an article on my Research-Led Teaching published in the Evening Dominion Post pdf3MB . Click image below to view my Research-Led Teaching video: Changing the Face of Wellington.
My Research-Led Postgraduate Teaching explores the Architecture of Dystopia pdf5MB . This research challenges our built environment to arrive at new solutions to 21st century problems we are facing: partially completed urban infrastructures or abandoned and dilapidated buildings resulting from economic recession; sites transformed by destructive strip mining, rising sea levels, global warming; sites damaged by war, abandonment, earthquakes, tsunamis, droughts, and floods; sites responding to disenfranchised youth, marginalized populations, or diasporas. This research implicates narrative, history, time, memory, cultural identity and meaning. It demands that students, as representatives of the new generation, take a strong personal position on what it means to represent this generation. How can the history and decayed state of permanently scarred sites be proactively used in their rejuvenation? How can the means of rejuvenating a permanently scarred site foster a new way of thinking about the significance of decay and future growth?
- 2005 NZ National Award for Sustained Excellence in Tertiary Teaching
- 2005 Award for Special Academic Achievement
- 2004 Award for Best Lecturer
- 2004 Award for Best Course
- 2003 Award for Best Lecturer
- 2001 Award for Best Lecturer
- 2001 Award for Best Tutor
- 2001 Award for Best Course
- 2000 Award for Best Tutor
- 2000 Award for Best Course
- 1999 Research and Study Fund Award
- 1999 Award for Special Academic Achievement
Click image to see Daniel’s “Teaching Portfolio” submitted for the 2005 New Zealand National Award for Sustained Excellence in Tertiary Teaching (PDF, 4 MB)
Professional experience in architecture
Emilio Ambasz & Associates, NY (Vice-President, 7 yrs)
Emilio Ambasz was Curator of Design at the Museum of Modern Art (MoMA) in New York from 1970-76 and President of the Architectural League from 1981-85. As Vice-President of EAA, Daniel managed the New York architecture office and coordinated 40 projects in the USA, Europe and Japan. During this period, EAA's designs were published in 4 monographs, over 100 journal articles, and exhibited in London, Tokyo, Milan, Bologna, Monterrey, and Mexico City.
- Japanese Institute of Architects Certificate of Environmental Architecture Award (International Conference Hall, Fukuoka, Japan)
- DuPont Benedictus Award (International Conference Hall, Fukuoka, Japan)
- DuPont Benedictus Award (Mycal Cultural and Athletic Center, Japan)
- Business Week/Architectural Record Award (Intern'l Conference Hall, Japan)
- SAFLEX Honourable Mention (Mycal Cultural and Athletic Centre, Japan)
- JCD Design Award (Mycal Cultural and Athletic Centre, Shin-Sanda, Japan)
- Competition Award Winner (Spijkenasse, Netherlands)
Richard Meier & Partners, New York (Barcelona Museum of Contemporary Art, 1 yr)
- AIA NY Chapter Award (Barcelona Museum of Contemporary Art)
Harry Seidler & Associates, Sydney (Senior Associate, 5 yrs)
- RAIA Award (Shell Oil Headquarters, Melbourne)
- RAIA Commercial Architecture Award (Shell Oil Headquarters, Melbourne)
Brown Daltas & Partners, Rome (Senior Designer, 1 yr)
- Competition Merit Award (Copley Square Design, Boston, USA)
- Competition Merit Award (Hotel, Casablanca, Morocco)
Newman Architects, New Haven (Designer, 1 yr)
BBN Technologies, Cambridge (Research Assistant, 2 yrs)
Recent architecture competitions
- Finalist: New Zealand Guest of Honour Pavilion, Frankfurt Book Fair
- Finalist: New Zealand Tomb of the Unknown Warrior
- Won: Pennsylvania Convention Center - US$500,000 Installation in collaboration with Jones Ginzel
Leadership roles and academic committees
Academic leadership roles
- Associate Dean (Academic Development), Faculty of Architecture and Design (FoAD) (2015-2018)
- Acting Dean, FoAD (as required, 2016-2018)
- Victoria University of Wellington Academic Board (2013-present)
- VUW Academic Committee (2015-2018)
- VUW Learning and Teaching Committee (2016-2018)
- Chair, FoAD Academic Committee (2015-2018)
- FoAD Faculty Management Team (2015-2018)
- Convenor, Creative Writing Programme Review, International Institute of Modern Letters (2018)
- Convenor, Victoria University of Wellington Disciplinary Committee (2018)
- Convenor, Graduate Year Review (GYR) Panel, Master of Design Innovation (2017)
- School of Architecture (SoA) Strategic Engagements Committee (Inaugural Chair 2012)
- Program Director, Interior Architecture (2004-2007; 2009-2012), two 3-year terms
- SoA Senior Management Advisory Team (2007-2012), two 3-year terms
- SoD Deputy Head of School (2005-2007)
- SoD Program Director BA Design Studies (2005-2006)
- SoD Director Student Liaison Committee (2004-2006)
- FoAD Convenor Performance-Based Research Fund (PBRF) Advisory Group (2003, 2005)
- SoD Senior Executive Committee (2000-2007), two 3-year terms
- SoD Convenor Curriculum Development Group (2000-2001)
Academic service roles
- NZIA Wellington Chapter, Public Presentation, Wellington Central Library (8 Aug 2019)
- VUW Steering Group for new Creativity CoRE Centre of Research Excellence (2019)
- VUW Steering Group for new Pacific CoRE Centre of Research Excellence (2019)
- VUW Academic Policy Committee (2018)
- VUW Review of Non Degree Based Teaching (NDT) Committee (2018)
- VUW Equity, Diversity and Inclusion Framework implementation focus group (2018)
- VUW Pasifika Pathways Committee (2018-present)
- VUW Curriculum Framework Reference Group (2018)
- VUW Committee for the Learning & Teaching Research Fund (2018-present)
- VUW Teaching Excellence and Early Career Teaching Award Selection Panel (2018-present)
- VUW Selection Committee, Manager of VUW Careers and Employment (2018)
- Invited external reviewer for €763,187 research funding application, Humanities in the European Research Area (HERA) Joint Research Programme (2018)
- Invited juror, Urban Design & Architecture Design Awards (2018)
- Board of Studies, VUW Foundation Studies Programme (2017-present)
- VUW GYR Evaluation Group for PGCert in Financial Markets Analysis, Faculty of Commerce (2017)
- VUW Moderation Evaluation Working Group (2017-2018)
- VUW Transition to University Working Group (2017-2018)
- VUW Selection Committee, Director of VUW Centre for Academic Development (2016-2017)
- VUW Focus Group for Selection of Vice-Provost (Academic & Equity) (2016)
- VUW GYR Evaluation Group for Engineering Computer Graphics Programme, Wellington Faculty of Engineering (2016)
- FoAD Graduate Attribute Profile Mapping Group (2015-2016)
- NZIA student awards competition mentor (2015, 2016)
- VUW 180pt Master's Degree Working Group (2015)
- VUW Examinations Pedagogy Working Group (2015)
- FoAD Attendance and Mandatory Requirements Working Group (2015)
- School of Design (SoD) Managing At-Risk Students Working Group (2015)
- VUW Centre for Academic Development (CAD) staff appointment panel (2015)
- Co-coordinator 8th Inter. Conference & Exhibition of Assoc. of Architecture Schools of Australasia (2015)
- FoAD representative: Regional Evenings Student Recruitment (2014-2016)
- VicTeach (2015-present)
- VUW Research Establishment Grants Committee (2011-2016)
- SADE (Science, Arch, Design, Engineering) Faculty Management Team staff representative (2011-2014)
- Wellington Museums Trust Advisory Group (2011-2014)
- SoA Professions Advisory Committee (Inaugural representative 2010-2012)
- FoAD Timetable Coordinator (2005-2012)
- VUW Equity Advisory Group (2006-2009)
- NZ TEC Quality Assurance Programme for Sultanate of Oman (2007-2008)
- SoD Research, Postgraduate Studies and Leave Committee (2000-2006)
- SoD Coordinator Marketing and Public Relations (2000-2006)
- VUW Teaching Working Group (2000)
- FoAD Exhibitions Coordinator (1998-2003)
Creative and performing arts research
Venice Architecture Biennale, Italy Pavilion, Venice 2010. The Italy Pavilion of the Venice Architecture Biennale showcased 5 years of my research relating to rejuvenation of the Tiber River in Rome through re-establishing critical links to lost cultural and historical imperatives.
Tahu-ui-a-rangi and Te Taha-o-te-rangi, Wellington, 2020. This research disrupts expectations of nature and time by representing them through the eyes of oral history and indigenous storytelling.
Te-toi-o-nḡa-rangi – HighLight Carnival of Lights, Hutt City, 2019. This research looked at the translation of Māori mythology into a public interactive event.
Te Toi-o-ngā-rangi, Christchurch Art Gallery, Christchurch 2019. This research looked at how light as a material can be used to translate Māori mythology, in this case, the uppermost of the twelve heavens in Māori cosmology.
Pūrerehua, LUMA Southern Light Festival, Queenstown 2019. This research looked at how light as a material can be used to translate Māori mythology, in this case, the kaitiaki (guardian) of the pūrerehua: Tāwhirimātea, God of the Winds.
Aurora, LUMA Southern Light Festival, Queenstown 2018. This research looked at how light as a material can be used to depict the birth of stars, the creation of the universe, and ultimately the genesis of the Southern Lights.
Edge of the Universe, LUX Light Festival, Wellington 2018. This research looked at how New Zealand poetry could be assimilated and brought to the public attention through sound and light.
Pulse, LUX Light Festival, Wellington 2015. This research looked at how cities have arisen where once were dynamic primal landscapes; now the living landscape lies permanently hidden beneath the concrete.
Behold, NLE (No Longer Empty) Lab Gallery, New York, NY 2013. This research looked at how a historic tree evidences a city's unique history, and how to use this tree to engage the community in critical dialogue around its future.
Night Hours, Architecture of Devotion Exhibit, Brooklyn, New York 2011. This Research project investigates how the Architecture of the Dead plays a critical role in establishing sacred sites where rites of passage between life and death can be witnessed.
Fluviale, Venice Architecture Biennale: Finale Event 2010. Investigates how polluted urban waterways are a reflection of the waters of our world; by re-activating links to lost cultural & historical imperatives, public awareness & civic responsibility can be regenerated.
Silent Witnesses: Pathways and Passages, Toulouse 2010. This Research documents the narrative architectural qualities of buried or broken architectural pathways that have acted as silent witnesses to a community’s culture and history.
Silent Witnesses: Portals, Marnay-sur-Seine 2010. This Research documents the narrative architectural qualities of buried or broken architectural portals that have acted as silent witnesses to a community’s culture and history.
Vessels, New Zealand International Arts Festival, Wellington 2010. This Research investigates how the narrative architectural qualities of public space can be transformed to reflect the intermittent passage between life and afterlife.
Le Lupe Come Forme del Tempo (She-Wolves as Forms of Time), Genoa 2009. This Research project investigates how historic cultural imaging transforms and distorts when filtered through the digital age.
Intermezzo, Anniversary Celebrations of the Birth of Rome, Rome 2009. This Research investigates how the narrative architectural qualities of public space can be augmented to reflect the liminality blurring utopian cultural mythology and dystopian contemporary reality.
Rivers of the Underworld, Genoa 2009. This Research documents how the extravagant waste of contemporary culture can be interpreted as a reflection of the mythological Rivers of the Underworld while evidencing the cultural values of our social condition.
Overtones, Orvieto 2009. This Research investigates how the ordinary aspects of our environment can be reawakened as rites of passage – light transitions into darkness, shadow becomes reflection, and urban cacophony reemerges as spatial harmonics.
She Wolves from the Tiber to the Hudson, River to River Festival, New York 2008. This Research investigates how a neglected urban site (Battery Park on the tip of Manhattan) can be revitalized by re-establishing critical links to lost bi-cultural and historical imperatives.
Luminalia, Summer Solstice Festival, Rome 2007. This Research investigates how a neglected urban site (the silted waters of the Tiber) can be revitalized by re-establishing critical links to lost cultural and historical imperatives through mythological reflection.
Four Arias at the Edge of Darkness, European Festival of Music, Rome 2006. This Research investigates how a neglected urban site (the abandoned embankments of the Tiber) can be revitalized by re-establishing critical links to lost cultural and historical imperatives.
Solstizio d’Estate, Eternal Tiber River Festival, Rome 2005. Investigates how a neglected urban site (the soot-covered Tiber River walls) can be revitalized by re-establishing critical links to cultural imperatives through cleansing as a reflection of contemporary graffiti.